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A Most American Terrorist: The Making of Dylann Roof

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“What are you?” a member of the Mother Emanuel AME Church in Charleston asked at the trial of the white man who killed eight of her fellow black parishioners and their pastor. “What kind of subhuman miscreant could commit such evil?... What happened to you, Dylann?”
Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah spent months in South Carolina searching for an answer to those questions—speaking with Roof’s mother, father, friends, former teachers, and victims’ family members, all in an effort to unlock what went into creating one of the coldest killers of our time.
Sitting beside the church, drinking from a bottle of Smirnoff Ice, he thought he had to go in and shoot them.
They were a small prayer group—a rising-star preacher, an elderly minister, eight women, one young man, and a little girl. But to him, they were a problem. He believed that, as black Americans, they were raping “our women and are taking over our country.” So he took out his Glock handgun and calmly, while their eyes were closed in prayer, ope…

Move over DNA. Scientists can identify you based on the unique pattern of proteins in your hair

Human hair under the microscope
Human hair under the microscope
A strand of hair at a crime scene, or clinging to human remains unearthed by archaeologists, could hold new promise as a means to identify its unique owner and unravel mysteries sealed by the passage of time.

In research published this week, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories reported they are devising a test of human hair that could fingerprint its owner in cases in which DNA evidence is fragmented, damaged or nowhere to be found. Like DNA sequencing, the test they have devised not only could identify an individual but trace his or her ancestry.

The researchers’ discovery, reported Wednesday in the journal PLoS One, addresses one of forensic scientists’ most pressing needs: a reliable alternative to DNA identification. DNA is actually quite fragile and notoriously vulnerable to degradation with time and exposure to the environment. It’s tricky to coax a full sequence from an old biological sample or one that’s been buried, frozen or baked in the sun.

While a shaft of hair often is presented as evidence in an old-fashioned whodunit, it does not actually contain nuclear DNA, the chemical blueprint an individual inherits from both parents. It does contain mitochondrial DNA, but because that is passed down matrilineally, it has limits as a means of identification.

In quainter times, investigators might put a hair under a microscope and compare it to, say, that of a defendant. But in current forensic science, a seeming match under the microscope would not be accepted as proof that two different shafts of hair came from the same person.

Every strand of hair is made up of proteins. In addition to being more resilient to environmental damage than DNA, those proteins are like an echo of a person’s DNA, said Brad Hart, co-author of a paper and director of Livermore’s Forensic Science Center.

It’s a simple but ingenious idea, conceived in 2013 by the paper’s lead author, Glendon Parker, then a biochemistry professor at Utah Valley University and now a scientist at Livermore: DNA provides the blueprint for proteins. So the coding quirks found in an individual’s DNA (called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs) will translate into recognizable variants in the proteins, known as single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs).

These SAPs are the protein markers that could guide future forensic scientists in identifying an individual even when DNA is not available. While they can be found in a single strand of hair, they also can be found in shed skin cells, bones and teeth.

Currently, it takes about two-and-a-half days to prepare a sample and sequence and analyze its proteins. Its cost, say the authors, likely will be competitive with other forensic tests.

Click here to read the full article

Source: L.A. Times, Melissa Healy, September 9, 2016

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